aCCORDING TO THE U.S. CENTER on DISEASE CONTROl .............
Chronic diseases and conditions--such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, type-two diabetes, obesity, and arthritis - are among the most common , costly, and preventable of all health problems. The four primary "health -risk' behaviors' that cause chronic disease are:
- Lack of exercise or physical activity
- Poor nutrition
- Tobacco use
- Drinking too much alcohol
Resarch reviewed by the CDC indicates that in the United States , chronic diseases and conditions and the health-risk behaviors that cause them, account for MOST healthcare coxts. Astonishingly , 86% of all healthcare spending in 2010 was for people with one or more chronic medical conditions. There is abundant evidence to indicate that these four health-risk behaviors impact the efficacy of mental health treatments (e.g.psychopharmacology) and contribute to the problematic behaviors of children and youth - leading many into the criminal justice system at an early age. There are strong correlations between thsse four health-risk behaviors and the substance use disorders and the anti-social behaviors of juveniles and adults.